WELCOME project Psoriasis Drug modern innovations

Project Psoriasis Drug

Psoriasis is /sɵraɪ.əsɨs/ long disease characterized by patches of abnormal skin. [1] These spots on the skin, usually red, itchy and scaly. They can range in severity from minor localized full body coverage. [2] Damage to the skin can cause psoriatic skin changes of this location, known as the Koebner phenomenon. [3] Psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of psoriatic arthritis, lymphomas, cardiovascular disease, Crohn's disease and depression. [4] Psoriatic arthritis affects 30% of people with psoriasis. [5]

There are five main types of psoriasis. Plaque, guttate, inverse, pustular and erythrodermic [1] psoriatic plaques, also known as psoriasis vulgaris, is about 90% of cases. It typically presents with red spots with white rocks on top. The most commonly affected areas are the back of the forearms, shins, around the navel, and scalp. [4] The punctate psoriasis has drop shapped lesions. [1] Pustular psoriasis presents with a small non-infectious pus filled blister. [5] Inverse psoriasis formed red spots in the skin folds. [1] Erytherodermic psoriasis is when the rash becomes very widespread and can occur from any of the other species. Fingernails and toenails are affected most people at some point in time. This may include pits in fingernails or discoloration. [4]

Psoriasis is usually considered genetic disease that is triggered by environmental factors. [2] In two separate studies, identical twins are three times more likely to be, so to be affected as compared to non-identical twins; This suggests that shared genetic risk factors are a prerequisite for psoriasis. Symptoms are often worse in the winter and with some drugs such as beta blockers or NSAIDs. [4] Infections and psychological stress may also play a role. [2] [1] Psoriasis is not contagious. The basic mechanism involves immune system reacts to skin cells. The diagnosis is usually based on signs and symptoms. [4]

There is no cure for psoriasis. Various treatments; However, it may help control the symptoms. [4] These procedures can include steroid creams, vitamin D3 cream, ultraviolet light and immunosuppresent drugs such as methotrexate. [1] About 75% of people can be operated only with creams. [4] The disease affects 2-4% of the population. [6] Both men and women are affected to the same frequency. [1]

genetics

About one third of people with psoriasis report a family history of the disease, and researchers have identified genetic loci associated with this disease. Twin studies show 70 percent chance of a double developing psoriasis if the other twin has the disorder. The risk is about 20% for non-identical twins. These findings suggest both a genetic predisposition and environmental response in developing psoriasis. [25]

Psoriasis is a strong hereditary component, and many genes associated with it, but it is unclear how these genes work together. Most of the identified genes associated with the immune system, particularly of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and T-cells. Genetic studies are valuable because of their ability to identify molecular mechanisms and ways to further study and potential drug targets. [26]

Classic whole genome analysis connection identified nine loci on different chromosomes, associated with psoriasis. They are called psoriasis susceptibility 1 to 9 (PSORS1 by PSORS9). Within those loci are genes roads that lead to inflammation. Some variants (mutations) of these genes are common in psoriasis. [26] The whole genome scan of association are identified other genes that vary in the characteristic variations in psoriasis. Some of these genes express inflammatory signaling proteins that affect cells in the immune system, which are also involved in psoriasis. Some of these genes are also involved in other autoimmune diseases. [26]

The main factor is PSORS1, which probably represents 35% -50% of psoriasis genetics. It controls genes that affect the immune system or encode proteins that are skin overabundant with psoriasis. PSORS1 is located on chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which controls important immune functions. Three genes in a locus PSORS1 have a strong relationship with psoriasis vulgaris: HLA-C variant HLA-cw6, [27], which encode for class I MHC protein; CCHCR1, variant WWC, which encodes a coiled protein that is overexpressed psoriatic epidermis; and CDSN, variant allele 5, which encodes a corneodesmosin, a protein that is expressed in the granular and keratinized layers of the epidermis and regulated in psoriasis. [26]

Two essential genes of the immune system under investigation are interleukin-12 subunit beta (IL12B) of chromosome 5q, who expresses interleukin-12B; and IL23R on chromosome 1P, which expresses interleukin-23 receptor, and is involved in T cell differentiation. Interleukin-23 receptor, and IL12B are both strongly associated with psoriasis. [27] The T-cells involved in the inflammatory process, leading to psoriasis. [26] These genes are on their way, which regulates tumor necrosis factor-α and factor kB nuclear, two genes involved in inflammation. [26] Recently, the first gene directly linked to psoriasis is identified. A rare mutation in the gene encoding for CARD14 protein plus actuation of the environment is sufficient to cause plaque psoriasis (the most common form of psoriasis). [28] [29]

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